民主與白痴

林佳和/政治大學法學院助理教授

兩天前,國民黨馬主席送行第九屆國共論壇代表。據媒體報導,馬主席說:外界質疑服貿協議是黑箱作業,其實過去一年,曾與業界超過100次協商,擴及46種服務業與264位代表,不論是關門或小座談。「因為還在談判中,所以無法公布,否則會影響結果,大概全世界都這樣子的,沒有人在談判完成前就把談判內容全部公布,那是做不到的」。

馬主席的「全世界」,好像跟大家不太一樣。以目前最夯的、歐盟與美國間TTIP-跨大西洋貿易與投資合作協定之預備簽署為例,歐盟執委會貿易主管官員,必須在協商過程中,定期對歐洲理事會、歐洲議會做報告,隨時受監督、檢驗與指示,將來協定草案,也必須由該等單位審查、修正、批准或否決,另一邊的美國也不例外。歐盟業務運作條約(AEUV)第218、207(3)條等,明定國際協定協商與締結,含開始、進行、終結、草案簽訂、協定締結、暫時適用、停止與中止、解除與終止,都須「立即、不拖延而廣泛周延的向歐洲議會提出報告」。在德國,依聯邦政府聯邦議會有關歐盟事務合作法(EUZBBG)規定,自由貿易的協商,「只要有聯邦議會議員要求與希望」,聯邦政府就有義務立即回答與報告,而且有資訊權之主體,應包括所有公民團體與一般人民,以促使「廣泛公共辯論與關注」。

看出差別了嗎?即使馬主席所言為真,假設「業界協商」不是單向告知與無拘束力諮詢,馬政府都刻意避開「國會暨公民監督」,陳長文律師說得傳神:結果透明就好、協商與簽訂過程不需要。眾所周知,馬政府本來連簽署後的國會監督都打算不認帳。

一次大戰法國總理克里蒙梭曾言:民主是一種自我克制的藝術,不然就等著別人來克制你。保加利亞諺語說:寧可跟著聰明人下地獄,也不要跟些白痴一起步入天堂。故意扭曲民主,自以為是地散布錯誤訊息,在在與白痴的行徑無異,偏偏來臨的又非天堂,服貿協議,實在是台灣民主的試金石啊。

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