新版都更條例行嗎?

楊重信(中央研究院退休研究員)

行政院版之《都市更新條例修正草案》已送進立法院。都更條例自一九九八年公布施行以來,已歷經十九年與八次修正,其施行結果證實不行,如今第九次修正難道就行嗎?

過去不行之癥結在於:政府不作為,將建商圈地合建房屋當作都更主要手段,以推卸應盡之都更責任;條例授權建商可以圈不同意者之土地,強迫參與合建,協調不成,可請政府「代拆」,引發爭議;獎勵與移入之容積量過大,導致基地發展超載,嚴重衝擊居住環境。新版條例雖然增加政府主導都更專章,以及強化審查與協調程序,但難脫窠臼,仍以獎勵建商圈地合建房屋為都更主軸,此注定新版條例將也是不行。

立法院即將審議都更條例修正案,謹提出建議供參:(一)明定地方政府應在一定限期內,完成更新地區之劃定、更新計畫之擬定、以及推動實施更新事業計畫。(二)刪除民間可自行劃設更新單元之規定,惟若立即刪除之衝擊太大,可考慮訂定落日條款,給予兩年緩衝期。(三)明定更新地區內建築基地之獎勵容積與移入容積,分別不得超過法定容積之四十%,且移入容積應以古蹟土地容積優先,並不得低於移入容積之五十%。(四)應明定公私夥伴關係之都更模式,公部門負責劃定更新地區、擬定更新計畫、劃定更新單元,以及負責公共設施建設、土地產權整合、住戶拆遷安置、弱勢照顧、以及地主權益保障等,至於公共設施建設經費則建議採取受益付費原則,由各更新單元分擔,或建立「稅收增額財務」制度,回收都更房地增值來償付;私部門負責更新事業與權利變換計畫之擬訂與報核,並在政府監督下,依權利變換方式透明公開地分配都更利益。(五)更新地區內公共設施保留地及應保存之建築及土地之權利,應容許參與都更,公平合理分配更新利益。(六)將策略性都更定位為中央主導之「都市再生」,都市再生計畫應明訂:計畫年期、目標與策略、實質發展與歷史保存計畫、土地取得方式、民間參與模式、地主權益保障、住戶拆遷安置、實施經費與財源籌措等。

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