保衛自由市

黃居正(清華大學科技法律研究所教授/澄社社員)

一九三九年九月一日,五十餘名但澤自由市郵局的員工與家屬,靠著幾支槍械抵抗入侵的德國裝甲部隊。十五小時後激戰結束,除了現場陣亡者,倖存員工都被俘虜至德國呂比克軍事法庭判處死刑槍決。史稱但澤市郵局保衛戰。這個位於波蘭境內的自由市,雖不被承認為獨立國家,但在凡爾賽和約的共識下,她擁有自己的憲法與議會,發行自己的鈔票與護照。為自由市勇敢犧牲的郵局員工多數是德裔,顯然對他們來說,同文同種不代表命運共同,民主自決要比一家親更為珍貴。

只想維持現狀的台灣,就像當年無法獨立、卻不屬於任何國家領土的但澤自由市。雖然中國受限於聯合國憲章與強行法,不能任意入侵台灣,然其窮兵黷武已遠超過納粹規模,加上台灣主體意識在重利與脅迫下日漸薄弱,保衛台灣不能再僅倚賴海峽中線,或連武器掉哪都找不到的國府傭兵,讓但澤市郵局員工甘願效死的民主制度與自由人權,也必須被升級至國際高度才行。

以與言論自由人權密切相關的資通基礎設施為例,中國新通過的網路安全法,之所以引發全球網商撻伐,部分甚至選擇脫離中國市場,是因為該法規定在中國營運的網商,除須積極提供國安與公安機關技術支持外,被認定涉及基礎設施者,尚需定期接受設備安全檢查。中國甚至要求網商須在中國境內儲存資料,不得以境外伺服器傳輸。這些設計的目的,都是為了便利中國藉實名制與國安名義監控網路言論,掌握個資動向,打擊反對力量,維穩專制統治。

資訊的流通自由,是判斷一個國家是否民主的基準要素。管制資通設施所涉及的言論自由保護,具有國際憲政主義的內涵,屬於超國界法,政府不應恣意干涉,這是進步的國際潮流。為了與中國區隔,台灣治理當局應採取與進步潮流一致的低度管轄原則,拒絕中國特色的資通安全管理法,讓網商願意以台灣為據點,繼續投資台灣,形成保護台灣的自由力量。

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